From mountains in Peru, the Incas ruled a
South American empire that stretched from the Pacific Coast to the
Atlantic and from Ecuador to Chile.
The Inca capital of Cuzco had palaces,
pyramidal temples, sanitation, and a big water supply. There was also a
fortress with stones that fit together perfectly with nothing to hold
Instead of writing, the Incas kept
records using a system of knotted cords. They were very good at music,
bridge building, and medicine. Some scientists believe that all Incas
had the same blood type and that they could do blood transfusions.
The Inca empire ended in 1532 when
Francisco Pizarro captured the leader and defeated the Inca armies. A
few rebels fought Spanish rule from mountain fortresses like Machu Picchu.